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Energy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well as non- biodegradable) through thermo-chemical and biochemical methods. Incineration of RDF pellets for power generation and biomethanation are currently the preferred technologies for MSW to energy in India.Some emerging technologies such as fermentation, plasma pyrolysis, microwave waste destruction and laser waste destruction exist and are at various stages of commercial uptake. These merit a continuing review to assess their relevance for possible application to the treatment of specific waste types under Indian conditions
There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Many of these technologies have the potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel than would be possible by direct combustion. This is mainly due to the separation of corrosive components (ash) from the converted fuel, thereby allowing higher combustion temperatures in e.g. boilers, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells. Some are able to efficiently convert the energy into liquid or gaseous fuels:
Gasification: produces combustible gas, hydrogen, synthetic fuels
Thermal depolymerization: produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined
Pyrolysis: produces combustible tar/biooil and chars
Plasma arc gasification or plasma gasification process (PGP): produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity to drive the plasma arch, usable vitrified silicate and metal ingots, salt and sulphur
Anaerobic digestion: Biogas rich in methane
Fermentation production: examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen
Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)
MBT + Anaerobic digestion
MBT to Refuse derived fuel
Subcontracts India facilitates Waste-To-Energy opportunities between Governments, Municipalities etc on one hand and Waste To Energy services providers on the other. We are connected to some of the most efficient and professional service providers with proven Waste-To-Energy (WTE) technology as well as business track records across the world. We brings them face to face with national/regional/state governments and municipal bodies and help them receive contracts for either collection, sorting, processing of MSW. We also help them secure PPAs for energy generated as well as market other by-products. Our services cut across geographical borders. We also help source project finance at extremely competitive rates for these project owners.
Gasification is the use of heat to transform soild biomass or other carbonaceous solids into a synthetic 'natural gas like' flammable fuel. Through gasification, we can convert nearly any dry organic matter into a clean burning fuel that can replace fossil fuel in most use situations. It is a much cleaner process than combustion for converting carbonaceous materials to energy. In gasification, the fuel is first converted to a clean burning gas (syngas) at high temperatures. This gas can be used as a clean fuel or converted to chemicals such as ammonia for industrial or agricultural use.
Gasification is a much cleaner process than combustion, it can create fewer air emissions and generate less waste than most traditional energy technologies. It helps reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal because it can use waste materials as feedstock to generate valuable products from materials that would otherwise be disposed as wastes. Through waste recycling, it boosts sustainable development and contributes to world's environmental construction.
From energy point of view, biomass is organic matter (based on carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) of non-fossil origin that has an intrinsic chemical energy content. It includes all terrestrial and aquatic vegetation, better known as virgin biomass, and all the biodegradable organic waste, such as municipal solid waste, animal waste, agricultural and forestry residues, and certain types of industrial waste.
The chemical energy contained in the biomass derives directly or indirectly from photosynthesis. Through this process, CO2 and water from the environment are used, thanks to the light energy captured from the sun, to nurture the growth of organic matter. In a nutshell, the energy contained in biomass is nothing but stored solar energy which is converted into power with null CO2 balance.
Any kind of biomass based on carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) can be converted into syngas. Noticeably, the performance of the gasification process depends on the physical and chemical properties of the biomass fed. The parameters that most influence the process are the following:
- Water content: moisture in the biomass must be reduced to a very low value (<10%) before feeding the gasifier
- Ash content: ashes are inorganic compounds that do not add heating value and affect the performance of the system if present in significant quantity or with particularly low melting point
- Heating value: measures the energy content of the fuel and determines the biomass consumption of the plant at constant output
- Composition: the relative content of C and H and the chemical species prevailing in the biomass (lignin, cellulose, resins) affect the relative amount of gas, liquid and solid products of pyro-gasification and their qualitative characteristics
- Size: it is a relevant parameter from the point of view of both plant and process. Too fine or dusty material does not allow the reactor bed to "breathe" properly, preventing the correct flow of the syngas. If the available biomass is too fine or dusty, the proper particle size of the material can be achieved through the production of pellets or briquette
Our Tech partners have long experience in producing and supplying environmentally friendly and high performing gasification systems and gas generator sets. They are specialized in biomass, coal and waste gasification to energy systems. Their gasification energy systems can convert various types of biomass, waste or coal into: electricity, process steam, drying, industrial heating, district heating and etc.
To know more about our role on Waste-To-Energy projects, please feel free to contact us.
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